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Side-by-Side COVID-19 Vaccine Comparison

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Manufacturer

Pfizer-BioNTech (Pfizer)
Moderna
Johnson & Johnson (J&J)

Who can get this vaccine?

Individuals five years of age and older.

 

Individuals 18 years of age and older.

 

Individuals 18 years of age and older

What is in the vaccine?

A list of ingredients can be found here.

 

A list of ingredients can be found here.

 

A list of ingredients can be found here.

How does the vaccine work?

The Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine is an initial two-dose series, separated by 21 days. It is injected into a muscle. A booster dose is recommended five months after the second dose.
The Pfizer vaccine is an mRNA vaccine.

 

The Moderna COVID-19 vaccine is a two-dose series separated by 28 days. It is injected into a muscle. A booster dose is recommended five months after the second dose.
The Moderna vaccine is an mRNA vaccine.
The J&J COVID-19 vaccine is a one-dose vaccine. It is injected into a muscle. A booster dose is recommended two months after the single dose.
The J&J vaccine is a viral-vector vaccine.

How many doses of vaccine do I need?

The manufacturer recommends two doses of Pfizer vaccine given 21 days apart.

 

The manufacturer recommends two doses of Moderna vaccine given 28 days apart

 

The J&J COVID-19 vaccine is a one-dose vaccine. 

 

Who can get a Third Dose of vaccine?

A third dose was approved by the FDA on August 12, 2021, for people with certain conditions and treatments. The full list can be found here. Third dose must be administered at least 28 days after the second dose
A third dose was approved by the FDA on August 12, 2021, for people with certain conditions and treatments. The full list can be found here. Third dose must be administered at least 28 days after the second dose.

 

At this time, an additional dose of J&J has not been approved.

Who can get a Vaccine Booster?

A Pfizer booster dose is available to anyone 18 years and older, and for ages 12-17 who received the initial Pfizer series.
 Booster dose must be at least five months after the second dose of Pfizer or Moderna, or two months after J&J.

 

A Moderna booster dose is available to anyone 18 years and older.
Booster dose must be at least five months after the second dose of Pfizer or Moderna, or two months after J&J.
 A Moderna booster contains half the dosage of the primary shots.
A J&J booster dose was approved by the FDA on October 20, 2021.  A booster dose is available to anyone 18 years and older.
 The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends Pfizer or Moderna boosters, but if given, a J&J booster dose must be at least five months after the second dose of Pfizer or Moderna, or two months after J&J.

 

 

How effective is the vaccine?

 

In initial studies, the Pfizer vaccine was 95% effective at preventing infection in adults after two doses, and 91% effective in preventing COVID-19 among children ages 5-11 years.

 

In initial studies, the Moderna vaccine was 94.1% effective at preventing infection two weeks after vaccination.

 

In initial studies, J&J vaccine was 66.3% effective in preventing illness at least 14 days after vaccination.

How effective is the booster against new variants?

According to Pfizer, its booster increases neutralizing antibodies        25-fold compared to pre-boost levels.
According to Moderna, its booster increases neutralizing antibodies      37-fold compared to  pre-boost levels.
According to J&J, its booster increases neutralizing antibodies four- to six-fold from levels observed after the single shot.

When was the vaccine authorized?

 

U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Emergency Use Authorization (EUA): December 11, 2020.
 FDA EUA for third dose for people with certain conditions and treatments: August 12, 2021.
 FDA full approval for people 16 years and older: August 23, 2021. Vaccine branded as Comirnaty.
 FDA EUA for booster dose for people aged 65 and older and those with other conditions and risks:  September 22, 2021.
 A booster dose for 18 years and older was approved by the FDA on October 20, 2021.
 The FDA EUA for children aged 5-11: November 1, 2021.
 The FDA EUA for booster to individuals 16-17 years old:  December 9, 2021.
 The FDA EUA for booster for individuals 12-15 years old: January 3, 2022
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued EUA for the vaccine on December 18, 2020.
 A third dose was approved by the FDA on August 12, 2021, for people with certain conditions and treatments. 
 A booster dose for 18 years and older was approved by the FDA on October 20, 2021.
FDA full approval for people 18 years and older: January 31, 2022. Vaccine branded as Spikevax.

 

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued EUA for the vaccine on February 27, 2021.
 A booster dose for individuals 18 years and older was approved by the FDA on October 20, 2021.